Avaliação da metacognição em estudantes de medicina, um estudo pioneiro.

Wendell Lima Rabelo (Universidade Federal de Roraima)

Download PDF | 131 visitas

Abstract

Pode-se assumir o conceito de metacognição como pensar sobre o pensamento, conhecer o conhecimento, e refletir sobre ações. Sua importância durante processos de aprendizagem já é notada na literatura, tendo estratégias de desenvolvimento da metacognição relação positiva com a performance do aluno. Este estudo se propõe a avaliar a metacognição nos discentes matriculados no quarto ano letivo da faculdade de medicina da UFRR na forma de variáveis metacognitivas, sendo elas: conhecimento válido, acerto casual, ignorância perigosa e ignorância válida. Durante seis semanas, os alunos responderam a cinco testes semanais seguidos por uma prova cognitiva. Para cada questão respondida, os alunos eram solicitados para determinar seu grau de certeza quanto aquele item, que variava de 1 a 5, sendo a partir daí determinadas as variáveis metacognitivas propostas. Foram também calculados os índices de discriminação e grau de dificuldade de todos os itens analisados. Obteve-se 1798 itens analisados (31 alunos responderam 58 itens cada), a média final para a turma foi 7.34. Os valores encontrados para conhecimento válido e ignorância válida são animadores, sendo 62.7% e 44.2%, respectivamente, porém, quando se analisam separadamente os alunos com maiores e menores notas, observou-se uma diferença alarmante tanto cognitiva quanto metacognitiva. Não foi observado diferença estatisticamente significante ao se comparar as variáveis metacognitivas entre homens e mulheres. Os achados das características relevantes ao item têm certa relação com a variáveis metacognitivas. Existe fraca correlação positiva entre índice de discriminação e ignorância válida e perigosa, além da fraca correlação negativa com conhecimento válido. Quanto ao grau de dificuldade, foi constatado o previsto: existe forte correlação negativa entre ignorância perigosa e válida e grau de dificuldade, de forma que quanto mais difícil a questão, mais erros são encontrados, sendo o pensamento contrário verdadeiro, o que tem clara influência nos resultados obtidos. Conclui-se que os alunos não devem ser avaliados somente da forma tradicional com o foco apenas no conhecimento cognitivo, mas também metacognitivo através do uso do grau de certeza como ferramenta para se atingir um possível novo método de feedback e avaliação formativa, evidenciando, desse modo, o grupo de alunos que necessitam de maior suporte psicoeducacional.

Palavras-chave: Medicina. Educação médica. Metacognição. Estudantes de medicina.

An acceptable concept os metacognition refers to the idea of thinking about thinking, knowing about knowledge, and reflect about actions. Considering that metacognition development strategies have positive correlation student performance, its role in learning processes are already well known in literature. This study intends to evaluate metacognition in undergraduate students properly enrolled to the forth year at the medical school of the Federal University of Roraima, and classify it into four metacognition variables: usable knowledge, casual score, hazardous ignorance, and usable ignorance. During six weeks, the volunteers were asked to answer five consecutive tests and a cognitive test at the end. For each question answered, they should define their confidence level about that answer, which vary from 1 to 5, making possible the classification into those metacognition variables previously mentioned. It was also calculated discrimination index and difficulty level for all analysed itens. In total, 1798 itens were studied (31 students answered 58 question each), the average grade at the end was 7.34 for the whole class. The numbers found for usable knowledge and usable ignorance are satisfactory, being 62.7% and 44.2%, respectively; however, when students with higher and lower grades are studied separately, an alarming finding is noted among cognition and metacognition. It was not observed statistically significant difference in metacognition between men and women. Regarding characteristics relevant to the itens, some interesting aspects can be discussed, for instance, there is a weak positive correlation between discrimination index (and difficulty level) and hazardous and usable ignorance, in opposition to the weak negative correlation with usable knowledge. With respect to the difficulty level of itens, it was observed the prediction: there is strong negative correlation with usable and hazardous ignorance, in such a way that the more difficult the question is, the more mistakes are found, being the opposite true, which has clear influence in the obtained results. It can be concluded that students are not to be evaluated only in a traditional perspective, focusing not only in cognition but in both cognition and metacognition, using the confidence level in order to achieve a new method of feedback and formative assessment, assisting in the identification of students who need a greater educational support.

Referências

Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Development Inquiry. Flavel, J. H. ‒ American Psychologist (1979)

Metacognição: um apoio ao processo de aprendizagem. Ribeiro, Célia ‒ Psicologia: Reflexão e Cŕitica (2003)
O presente artigo, a partir de uma incursão pela literatura, visa contribuir para a clarificalçao do conceico de metacognição. Neste sentido, procura evidenciar o papel das estratégias metacogniti... Abstract: O presente artigo, a partir de uma incursão pela literatura, visa contribuir para a clarificalçao do conceico de metacognição. Neste sentido, procura evidenciar o papel das estratégias metacognitivas na potencialização da aprendizagem, ou seja, no desenvolvimento pelo aluno de modos eficazes para lidar com a informação proveniente do meio e com os próprios processo de pensamento. Argumenta-se que apesar da polêmica acerca do conceito de metacognição, é inegável a sua contribuição para a aprendizagem, uma vez que os treinos que contemplam atividades metacognitivas têm produzido melhores resultados no que se refere a realização escolar.

Effects of human self-assessment responding on learning. Darwin P. Hunt ‒ Journal of Applied Psychology (1982)
Examined the effects of self-assessment (SA) responding on acquisition rate in paired-associates learning with 190 undergraduates. SA responding required the learner to indicate the degree of sure... Abstract: Examined the effects of self-assessment (SA) responding on acquisition rate in paired-associates learning with 190 undergraduates. SA responding required the learner to indicate the degree of sureness in the correctness of each answer by pressing one of several buttons (representing different levels of sureness) either immediately before or after each answer. The number of trials required to learn the names of 8 tools by 20 Ss in each group, who made SA responses using either 2, 4, or 8 SA-response buttons, was compared with the number of trials required by Ss in 3 control groups, who either performed only the learning task or in addition pressed a single button labeled Record either before or after each answer. Results show that acquisition was expedited by as much as 25% by SA responding and was more rapid if the SA response was executed after the answer, rather than before it. The more rapid acquisition is tentatively attributed to a greater ability of the learner who engages in SA responding to identify a correct response. (6 ref)

In what level and how medical students use metacognition? A case from Hacettepe University. Sevgi Turan; Ozcan Demirel ‒ Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (2010) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.132
The aim of this study is to describe in what level and how medical students use metacognition. In the study, quantitative and qualitative methods were used together, by benefiting from descriptive... Abstract: The aim of this study is to describe in what level and how medical students use metacognition. In the study, quantitative and qualitative methods were used together, by benefiting from descriptive method. The first three year (preclinic year) students of Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine participated to the study. In order to determine the metacognition level, Metacognition Scale was used and also 9 students were interviewed. In the metacognition scores, the differences were determined according to the phases and academic achievement levels but not gender and the curricular language. In the interviews, it's been observed that the students in the learning process go through similar cognitive stages. These stages are recalling knowledge, learning new information and ensuring the sustainability of learning. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A Metacognição como Estratégia Reguladora da Aprendizagem. Graciela Inchausti; De Jou; Tania Mara ‒ Psicologia: Reflexão e Cŕitica, (2004)
A Psicologia Cognitiva através de seu enfoque do Processamento de Informação postula que a mente é um sistema cognitivo, que habilita o ser humano a interagir no seu meio. Este sistema, por sua ve... Abstract: A Psicologia Cognitiva através de seu enfoque do Processamento de Informação postula que a mente é um sistema cognitivo, que habilita o ser humano a interagir no seu meio. Este sistema, por sua vez, tem a capacidade de se monitorar e auto-regular, potencializando o próprio sistema. Essa capacidade foi definida como metacognição. O presente trabalho tem como finalidade, primeiramente, analisar o conceito de metacognição, tentando capturar sua essência e funcionalidade como processo cognitivo; em segundo lugar, mostrar e discutir os modelos expostos por diferentes autores da área e, por último, relatar pesquisas que mostram a metacognição como fator determinante na aprendizagem instrucional.A Psicologia Cognitiva através de seu enfoque do Processamento de Informação postula que a mente é um sistema cognitivo, que habilita o ser humano a interagir no seu meio. Este sistema, por sua vez, tem a capacidade de se monitorar e auto-regular, potencializando o próprio sistema. Essa capacidade foi definida como metacognição. O presente trabalho tem como finalidade, primeiramente, analisar o conceito de metacognição, tentando capturar sua essência e funcionalidade como processo cognitivo; em segundo lugar, mostrar e discutir os modelos expostos por diferentes autores da área e, por último, relatar pesquisas que mostram a metacognição como fator determinante na aprendizagem instrucional.

The levels of difficulty and discrimination indices in type a multiple choice questions of pre-clinical semester 1 multidisciplinary summative tests. Nk Mitra; Hs Nagaraja; G Ponnudurai; Jp Judson ‒ International e-Journal of Science, Medicine & Education (2009)
Item analysis is the process of collecting, summarizing and using information from students’ responses to assess the quality of test items. Difficulty index (P) and Discrimination index (D) are tw... Abstract: Item analysis is the process of collecting, summarizing and using information from students’ responses to assess the quality of test items. Difficulty index (P) and Discrimination index (D) are two parameters which help evaluate the standard of MCQ questions used in an examination, with abnormal values indicating poor quality. In this study, 120 test items of 12 Type A MCQ tests of Foundation 1 multi-disciplinary summative assessment from M2 / 2003 to M2 / 2006 cohorts of International Medical University were selected and their P-scores in percent and D-scores were estimated using Microsoft Office Excel. The relationship between the item difficulty index and discrimination index for each test item was determined by Pearson correlation analysis using SPSS 11.5. Mean difficulty index scores of the individual summative tests were in the range of 64% to 89%. One-third of total test items crossed the difficulty index of 80% indicating that those items were easy for the students. Sixty seven percent of the test items showed acceptable (> 0.2) discrimination index. Forty five out of 120 test items showed excellent discrimination index. Discrimination index correlated poorly with difficulty index (r = -0.325). In conclusion, a consistent level of test difficulty and discrimination indices was maintained from 2003 to 2006 in all the twelve summative type A MCQ tests.

Usable knowledge, hazardous ignorance - beyond the percentage correct score.. Valerie Dory; Jan Degryse; Ann Roex; Dominique Vanpee ‒ Medical teacher (2010)
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the metacognitive ability of medical students. AIM: We used confidence marking to explore certainty of knowledge and ignorance. METHODS: One hundred a... Abstract: BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the metacognitive ability of medical students. AIM: We used confidence marking to explore certainty of knowledge and ignorance. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-seven of 169 general practice trainees took part. Students sat a written multiple choice question (MCQ) test. Each answer was followed by a degree of certainty judgement. Answers attributed with a high degree of certainty were used to compute overall usable knowledge, hazardous ignorance, proportions of knowledge that is usable and of ignorance that is hazardous. The former variables were analysed according to MCQ score, year of training and gender. RESULTS: At a group level, the mean amount of usable knowledge on the MCQ was 21.13%, mean amount of hazardous ignorance on the MCQ was 5.21%, mean proportion of knowledge that was usable was 36.57%, mean proportion of ignorance that was hazardous was 14.32%. There were neither significant differences between highest and lowest quartiles of MCQ score, nor according to year of training. Men had higher levels of ignorance that is hazardous. CONCLUSION: A third of trainees' knowledge was partial. A sixth of their ignorance was hazardous. Confidence marking can aid formative assessment and could potentially be implemented into summative assessments.

Thinking about thinking and emotion: the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences.. Quentin G Eichbaum ‒ The Permanente journal (2014) http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender...
Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma f... Abstract: Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma for medical educators. We can no longer expect students to continue memorizing this large body of increasingly complex knowledge. Instead, our efforts should be redirected at developing in students a competency as flexible thinkers and agile learners so they can adeptly deal with new knowledge, complexity, and uncertainty in a rapidly changing world. Such a competency would entail not only cognitive but also emotional skills essential for the holistic development of their professional identity. This article will argue that metacognition--“thinking about thinking (and emotion)”--offers the most viable path toward developing this competency. The overwhelming volume of medical knowledge has driven some medical schools to reduce the time allocated in their curricula to the “soft-option” humanities as they tend to consider them an expendable “luxury.” Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, has moved away from the traditional conception of the medical humanities as “the arts,” composed of art, music, and literature, toward an approach that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences, based on metacognition. This metacognitive approach to the humanities, described in this article, has three goals: 1) to develop students as flexible thinkers and agile learners and to provide them with essential cognitive and emotional skills for navigating medical complexity and uncertainty; 2) to elicit in students empathy and tolerance by making them aware of the immense diversity in human cognition (and emotion); and 3) to integrate the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences. Through this metacognitive approach, students come to understand their patterns of cognition and emotions, and in the group setting, they learn to mindfully calibrate their thinking and emotions. They gain a humbling appreciation of the fallibility of the human mind/brain and how cognitive biases and misperception can lead to medical error. They come to appreciate the complex interplay between cognition and emotion, and the importance of cognitive monitoring and emotional regulation. In the group setting, students also gain a sense of perspective of their thinking patterns and emotions in relation to those of their peers. Perspective taking and mindfulness engender tolerance and empathy, which ultimately serves as a platform for working collaboratively in teams as medical professionals. Students become aware of the social context in which thinking and learning occur, and this further shapes their professional identity. Thinking, learning, and interacting in the group setting ultimately induces a shift from self-preoccupation and an individualistic approach to knowledge toward an appreciation of collective cognition and empathy towards others. In this article, I describe the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and how it is designed to develop students as agile learners and flexible thinkers with the mindful capacity for cognitive and emotional monitoring and regulation. Thinking and learning in the group setting of the colloquium ultimately also fosters the student’s professional identity.

Self-assessment in the health professions: a reformulation and research agenda.. Kevin W Eva; Glenn Regehr ‒ Academic Medicine (2005)
Many researchers and educators have identified self-assessment as a vital aspect of professional self-regulation.1,2,3 This rationale has been the expressed motivation for a large number of studie... Abstract: Many researchers and educators have identified self-assessment as a vital aspect of professional self-regulation.1,2,3 This rationale has been the expressed motivation for a large number of studies of self-assessment ability in medical education, health professional education, and professions education generally. Unfortunately, the outcome of most studies would seem to cast doubt on the capacity for self-assessment, with the majority of authors concluding that self-assessment is, in fact, quite poor.4 In a recent article, Ward and colleagues suggested that this conclusion must be questioned because the methodologies used to evaluate self-assessment are fraught with methodological weaknesses.4 However, even studies that have attempted to address the weaknesses within the methodological paradigm have produced little evidence for effective self-assessment.5 Thus, the health professional education community is left with a conundrum that can only be resolved by deciding either that the conclusions of the studies are wrong, or that a critical premise underlying the concept of "self-regulation" in the professions is unsupportable. The current paper addresses this conundrum by arguing that there is a problem with the literature on self-assessment, and that this problem is more fundamental than a list of easily correctable methodological flaws. Rather, the roots of the problem in the self-assessment literature involve a failure to effectively conceptualize the nature of self-assessment in the daily practice of health care professionals, and a failure to properly explicate the role of self-assessment in a self-regulating profession. Until such an articulation of self-assessment is elaborated, it is difficult to know even which literatures might be informative in addressing this issue, and impossible to develop programs of research that operationalize the concept of self-assessment ability in a form that can be effectively studied. Thus, we will begin with a brief reflection on the various functions of self-assessment for a practicing health care professional and the manner in which these functions operate.

Exploring the divergence between self-assessment and self-monitoring. Kevin W. Eva; Glenn Regehr ‒ Advances in Health Sciences Education (2011)
Many models of professional self-regulation call upon individual practitioners to take responsibility both for identifying the limits of their own skills and for redressing their identified limits... Abstract: Many models of professional self-regulation call upon individual practitioners to take responsibility both for identifying the limits of their own skills and for redressing their identified limits through continuing professional development activities. Despite these expectations, a considerable literature in the domain of self-assessment has questioned the ability of the self-regulating professional to enact this process effectively. In response, authors have recently suggested that the construction of self-assessment as represented in the self-regulation literature is, itself, problematic. In this paper we report a pair of studies that examine the relationship between self-assessment (a global judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring (a moment-by-moment awareness of the likelihood that one maintains the skill/knowledge to act in a particular situation). These studies reveal that, despite poor correlations between performance and self-assessments (consistent with what is typically seen in the self-assessment literature), participant performance was strongly related to several measures of self-monitoring including: the decision to answer or defer responding to a question, the amount of time required to make that decision to answer or defer, and the confidence expressed in an answer when provided. This apparent divergence between poor overall self-assessment and effective self-monitoring is considered in terms of how the findings might inform our understanding of the cognitive mechanisms yielding both self-monitoring judgments and self-assessments and how that understanding might be used to better direct education and learning efforts.

Human Self-Assessment in Multiple-Choice Testing. Hassmén, Peter; Hunt, Darwin P ‒ Journal of Educational Measurement (1994) http://www.jstor.org/stable/1435174
Research indicates that the multiple-choice format in itself often seems to favor males over females. The present study utilizes a method that enables test takers to assess the correctness of thei... Abstract: Research indicates that the multiple-choice format in itself often seems to favor males over females. The present study utilizes a method that enables test takers to assess the correctness of their answers. Applying this self-assessment method may not only make the multiple-choice tests less biased but also provide a more comprehensive measurement of usable knowledge--that is, the kind of knowledge about which a person is sufficiently sure so that he or she will use the knowledge to make decisions and take actions. The performance of male and female undergraduates on a conventional multiple-choice test was compared with their performance on a multiple-choice self-assessment test. Results show that the difference between test scores of males and those of females was reduced when subjects were allowed to make self-assessments. This may be explained in terms of the alleged difference in cognitive style between the genders.

Aprendizagem baseada em equipes: da teoria à prática. Valdes Roberto Bollela; Maria Helena Senger; Francis S V Tourinho;... ‒ Revista da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto e do Hospital das Cĺinicas da FMRP Universidade de São Paulo (2014)

Exploring the factors influencing clinical students' self-regulated learning. Joris J. Berkhout; Esther Helmich; Pim W. Teunissen; Joost W. van ... ‒ Medical Education (2015)
OBJECTIVES The importance of self-regulated learning (SRL) has been broadly recognised by medical education institutions and regulatory bodies. Supporting the development of SRL skills has proven ... Abstract: OBJECTIVES The importance of self-regulated learning (SRL) has been broadly recognised by medical education institutions and regulatory bodies. Supporting the development of SRL skills has proven difficult because self-regulation is a complex interactive process and we know relatively little about the factors influencing this process in real practice settings. The aim of our study was therefore to identify factors that support or hamper medical students’ SRL in a clinical context. METHODS We conducted a constructivist grounded theory study using semi-structured interviews with 17 medical students from two universities enrolled in clerkships. Participants were purposively sampled to ensure variety in age, gender, experience and current clerkship. The Day Reconstruction Method was used to help participants remember their activities of the previous day. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed iteratively using constant comparison and open, axial and interpretive coding. RESULTS Self-regulated learning by students in the clinical environment was influenced by the specific goals perceived by students, the autonomy they experienced, the learning opportunities they were given or created themselves, and the anticipated outcomes of an activity. All of these factors were affected by personal, contextual and social attributes. CONCLUSIONS Self-regulated learning of medical students in the clinical environment is different for every individual. The factors influencing this process are affected by personal, social and contextual attributes. Some of these are similar to those known from previous research in classroom settings, but others are unique to the clinical environment and include the facilities available, the role of patients, and social relationships pertaining to peers and other hospital staff. To better support students’ SRL, we believe it is important to increase students’ metacognitive awareness and to offer students more tailored learning opportunities.

Evaluation and Testing in Nursing Education. Oermann, Marilyn H.; Gaberson, Kathleen B. (2009)
applicability for this approach. Abstract: applicability for this approach.

The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information.. George Miller ‒ Psychological review (1956) http://content.apa.org/journals/rev/63/2/81
First, the span of absolute judgment and the span of immediate memory impose severe limitations on the amount of information that we are able to receive, process, and remember. By organizing the s... Abstract: First, the span of absolute judgment and the span of immediate memory impose severe limitations on the amount of information that we are able to receive, process, and remember. By organizing the stimulus input simultaneously into several dimensions and successively into a sequence or chunks, we manage to break (or at least stretch) this informational bottleneck. Second, the process of recoding is a very important one in human psychology and deserves much more explicit attention than it has received. In particular, the kind of linguistic recoding that people do seems to me to be the very lifeblood of the thought processes. Recoding procedures are a constant concern to clinicians, social psychologists, linguists, and anthropologists and yet, probably because recoding is less accessible to experimental manipulation than nonsense syllables or T mazes, the traditional experimental psychologist has contributed little or nothing to their analysis. Nevertheless, experimental techniques can be used, methods of recoding can be specified, behavioral indicants can be found. And I anticipate that we will find a very orderly set of relations describing what now seems an uncharted wilderness of individual differences. Third, the concepts and measures provided by the theory of information provide a quantitative way of getting at some of these questions. The theory provides us with a yardstick for calibrating our stimulus materials and for measuring the performance of our subjects. In the interests of communication I have suppressed the technical details of information measurement and have tried to express the ideas in more familiar terms; I hope this paraphrase will not lead you to think they are not useful in research. Informational concepts have already proved valuable in the study of discrimination and of language; they promise a great deal in the study of learning and memory; and it has even been proposed that they can be useful in the study of concept formation. A lot of questions that seemed fruitless twenty or thirty years ago may now be worth another look. In fact, I feel that my story here must stop just as it begins to get really interesting. And finally, what about the magical number seven? What about the seven wonders of the world, the seven seas, the seven deadly sins, the seven daughters of Atlas in the Pleiades, the seven ages of man, the seven levels of hell, the seven primary colors, the seven notes of the musical scale, and the seven days of the week? What about the seven-point rating scale, the seven categories for absolute judgment, the seven objects in the span of attention, and the seven digits in the span of immediate memory? For the present I propose to withhold judgment. Perhaps there is something deep and profound behind all these sevens, something just calling out for us to discover it. But I suspect that it is only a pernicious, Pythagorean coincidence.

Effects of a metacognitive intervention on students' approaches to learning and self-efficacy in a first year medical course. Papinczak, Tracey; Young, Louise; Groves, Michele; Haynes, Michele ‒ Advances in Health Sciences Education (2008)
AIM: To determine the influence of metacognitive activities within the PBL tutorial environment on the development of deep learning approach, reduction in surface approach, and enhancement of indi... Abstract: AIM: To determine the influence of metacognitive activities within the PBL tutorial environment on the development of deep learning approach, reduction in surface approach, and enhancement of individual learning self-efficacy. METHOD: Participants were first-year medical students (N = 213). A pre-test, post-test design was implemented with intervention and control cohorts, with intervention students experiencing a program of metacognitive activities within their PBL tutorials of at least 20 weeks duration. All students completed the Medical Course Learning Questionnaire at the commencement, and again at the completion of, the study. The metacognitive intervention itself consisted of reflection on the learning in PBL coupled with peer- and self-assessment. RESULTS: Self-efficacy was significantly reduced for both control and intervention cohorts at the conclusion of the study. A significant reduction in the adoption of deep and strategic learning approach, matched by a corresponding increase in the use of surface learning, was demonstrated for both cohorts. There was a statistically significant association between high self-efficacy and deep learning approach, with older students over-represented in the group of efficacious deep learners. CONCLUSION: Over the course of first-year medical studies, students lose self-efficacy and move away from deep-strategic learning approaches towards more surface approaches. The program of metacognitive activities failed to reverse this trend. The substantial swing towards surface learning raises questions about the perceived capacity of PBL curricula to promote deep approaches to learning in dense curricula, and reinforces the importance of personal and contextual factors, such as study habits, workload and assessment, in determining individual approaches and idiosyncratic responses to learning situations.

Increasing Student Metacognition and Learning through Classroom-Based Learning Communities and Self-Assessment †. Amy Siegesmund ‒ Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education (2016) http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/jmbe...
Student overconfidence challenges success in introductory biology. This study examined the impact of classroom learning communities and self-assessment on student metacognition and subsequent impa... Abstract: Student overconfidence challenges success in introductory biology. This study examined the impact of classroom learning communities and self-assessment on student metacognition and subsequent impact on student epistemological beliefs, behaviors, and learning. Students wrote weekly self-assessments reflecting on the process of learning and received individual feedback. Students completed a learning strategies inventory focused on metacognition and study behaviors at the beginning and end of the semester and a Student Assessment of their Learning Gains (SALG) at the end of the semester. Results indicated significant changes in both metacognition and study behaviors over the course of the semester, with a positive impact on learning as determined by broad and singular measures. Self-assessments and SALG data demonstrated a change in student beliefs and behaviors. Taken together, these findings argue that classroom learning communities and self-assessment can increase student metacognition and change student epistemological beliefs and behaviors.

Avaliação do crescimento cognitivo do estudante de medicina: aplicação do teste de equalização no teste de progresso. Marcia Hiromi Sakai; Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho; Tiemi Matsuo ‒ Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica (2011) http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_art...

Metacognitive awareness and self-regulated learning skills of medical students in different medical curricula.. Sevgi Turan; Ozcan Demirel; Iskender Sayek ‒ Medical teacher (2009)
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the acquisition of metacognitive awareness and self-regulated learning skills in medical schools using different curricular models. METHODS: The study... Abstract: AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the acquisition of metacognitive awareness and self-regulated learning skills in medical schools using different curricular models. METHODS: The study was carried out in four medical schools implementing different curricular models. Eight hundred and sixty two medical students took part in the study and two scales (self-regulated learning perception scale--SRLPS and metacognitive awareness inventory--MAI) were used. Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 for the MAI, and 0.88, 0.91, 0.83, and 0.76 for the four dimensions of the SRLPS. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in MAI scores according to gender, curricular language, or previous exposure or not to a learner-centered method during secondary school, but the differences in scores according to the phase and curricular model were found to be significant. With regard to SRLPS total scores, no difference was found according to gender, but significant differences were found according to phase, curricular language, and curricular model. MAI and SRLPS scores of students from the medical school using a learner-centered curriculum were higher than the other schools' students. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that students who experience a learner-centered curriculum, such as PBL during their medical education demonstrate improved metacognitive awareness and self-regulated learning skills.

Formative self-assessment using multiple true-false questions on the Internet: feedback according to confidence about correct knowledge.. Khalid S Khan; David a Davies; Janesh K Gupta ‒ Medical teacher (2001) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11371292
In undergraduate clinical courses, students are often dispersed over several teaching sites. Traditional curricula do not have mechanisms that allow monitoring of an individual student's education... Abstract: In undergraduate clinical courses, students are often dispersed over several teaching sites. Traditional curricula do not have mechanisms that allow monitoring of an individual student's educational progress or that of a small group of students at a teaching site relative to that of the whole group. To address these issues, we have developed a web-based formative assessment system that consists of knowledge tests based on multiple true-false questions. During the test, in addition to marking true or false against each question, students indicate their level of confidence (doubt or certainty) about each answer. The feedback consists of whether the answer is correct or incorrect and the confidence with which the student had responded. Feedback to students assesses their own performance in relation to that of their peers. Feedback to tutors provides anonymized information about the level of achievement of students at their teaching site relative to that of students at other sites. This systems has the tools that students can use to direct their learning and tutors can use to tailor their teaching in the light of the instantaneously available comparative feedback.